Go to Manzoni, Alessandro — in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. The elderly Francisco de Goya becomes the first great artist to attempt lithography. Franz Schubert composes his 'Great' C major symphony previously often attributed to Active later called Locomotion is the engine on the first passenger railway, between Stockton and Darlington.
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The English socialist Robert Owen purchases New Harmony from the Rappists, to test his utopian theories in a new context. A December uprising in St Petersburg ends when troops fire on the crowd, but the 'Decembrists' become revolutionary martyrs. Go to Mendelssohn, Felix —47 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Go to Telford, Thomas — in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. The Turkish governor of Algiers, flicking at the French consul with his fly whisk, finds that he has provoked a French blockade and eventually invasion. George Canning becomes the British prime minister, but dies five months later.
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German physicist Georg Simon Ohm formulates his law about the proportionality of current flowing in an electric conductor. Go to Cole, Thomas —48 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. London's first suspension bridge opens at Hammersmith. English artist Samuel Palmer moves to Shoreham, in Kent, for the most inspired years of his career. Go to Palmer, Samuel —81 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. The Duke of Wellington becomes British prime minister, heading the Tory government at a time when reform is urgently needed.
Shaka is murdered by his half-brother Dingaan, who becomes leader of the Zulu in his place. Dom Miguel betrays his allegiance to his brother Pedro IV and usurps the Portuguese throne in a bloodless coup. After little more than two years of quarrelsome existence, Robert Owen's community at New Harmony comes to an end. Conservative 'bigwigs' and liberal 'novices' emerge as Chile's two main political parties. Connecticut lexicographer Noah Webster publishes the definitive 2-volume scholarly edition of his American Dictionary of the English Language.
Irish nationalist Daniel O'Connell wins a sensational by-election victory to join the Westminster parliament. The Cherokees adopt an American-style constitution and publish the first American-Indian newspaper. Adult white males now have the vote in almost all the states of the USA. William Burke and William Hare murder 16 victims and sell their bodies to the Edinburgh Medical School for anatomical study. After a century of neglect, the year-old Felix Mendelssohn conducts an influential revival in Berlin of J. Bach's St Matthew Passion. James Stirling explores up the Swan River in western Australia to find a site for the settlement which he names Perth.
The Metropolitan Police, set up in London by Robert Peel, become known as 'bobbies' from his first name. The state government of Georgia declares that it is illegal for the Cherokees to hold political assemblies. Gioacchino Rossini's opera William Tell has its premiere in Paris. Oxford and Cambridge compete against each other in the first university boat race, held at Henley.
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The locomotive Rocket , built by George and Robert Stephenson, defeats two rivals in the Rainhill trials, near Liverpool. Victor Hugo's romantic drama Hernani provokes a riot in the Paris audience on the first night. The death of the last infant cousin senior to her in the royal succession makes Victoria heir to the British throne. Go to Victoria — in World Encyclopedia 1 ed.
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A network of undercover abolitionists in the southern states of America help slaves escape to freedom in the north. Go to abolitionist in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Oliver Wendell Holmes' poem 'Old Ironsides' prompts a public response that saves the frigate from the scrapyard.
Richard Lander and his brother John explore the lower reaches of the Niger, proving that the great river is navigable. Earl Grey becomes British prime minister at the head of a Whig government committed to reform. Hokusai begins to publish his famous colour-printed views of Mount Fuji. Go to Hokusai, Katsushika — in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. A revolution erupts in Paris in July and sweeps Charles X from the throne.
Louis-Philippe, the Citizen King, is welcomed in Paris in a new role — as 'king of the French, by the will of the people'. Go to Louis Philippe — in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Milosh Obrenovich wins recognition for an autonomous Serbia, with himself as prince. A French army invades Algeria, beginning the process which brings the region within the French empire.
The Book of Mormon, translated from miraculously discovered holy tablets, is published by their finder Joseph Smith. Diego Portales begins a year spell as Chile's conservative dictator. Panama becomes part of the newly independent republic of Colombia. George Stephenson's railway between Liverpool and Manchester opens, with passengers pulled by eight locomotives based on Rocket. Go to Berlioz, Hector —69 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Old London Bridge is demolished after more than six centuries, ending the chance of frost fairs on the Thames.
Old Sarum, the most notorious of Britain's rotten boroughs, has just seven voters but returns two members to parliament. Mameluke power ends with their suppression in Baghdad, following a massacre in Cairo twenty years earlier. Italian nationalist Giuseppe Mazzini founds Young Italy, an organization to promote insurrection.
Go to Mazzini, Giuseppe —72 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. The last surviving Aborigines of Tasmania are moved by the British to a small island where they soon die out. Go to Reform Acts in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Nat Turner leads a revolt by fellow slaves in Southampton County, Virginia, killing 59 whites and provoking more repressive legislation. Go to Turner, Nat —31 in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Evangelical preacher Charles Grandison Finney leads a new wave of revivalism in the northeastern states. Russian poet Alexander Pushkin publishes a grand historical drama, Boris Godunov.
HMS Beagle sails from Plymouth to survey the coasts of the southern hemisphere, with Charles Darwin as the expedition's naturalist. English scientist Michael Faraday reports his discovery of the first law of electrolysis, to be followed a year later by the second. Go to Faraday, Michael — in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. The full text of Goethe's Faust , Parts 1 and 2, is published a few months after the poet's death.
English mathematician Charles Babbage builds a sophisticated calculating machine, which he calls a 'difference engine'. Go to Babbage, Charles — in World Encyclopedia 1 ed. Gaetano Donizetti's opera L'elisir d'amore has its premiere in Milan. Go to Donizetti, Gaetano — in World Encyclopedia 1 ed.